The young men of Australia responded quickly to the call to arms. Australia, with the other British Dominions had adopted the Empire Air Training Scheme (EATS) to provide trained aircrews to fight with the RAF. Australian recruits received elementary training at air bases around Australia and many of them were then sent overseas for advanced training.

Before the scheme ended in mid-1944, more than 10,000 Australians had received advanced training in Canada and 674 had been sent to Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) before joining the RAF in Britain. So that the RAAF identity would not be lost in the EATS, provision was made under the agreement for the formation of complete Dominion Squadrons within the plan. Squadrons which were predominantly Australian aircrew were designated as RAAF squadrons and 17 of these were eventually formed: 12 in Britain and 5 in the Middle East. Many Australians also served in RAF squadrons as did British and other Dominion personnel in RAAF squadrons.

Australian Squadrons Bomber Command was a multi‐national force and Australian aircrew could be assigned to one of the Australian squadrons, or to a Royal Air Force (RAF) Squadron. The first two Australian squadrons were formed in 1941 (No 455 and No 458), but by 1942 No 460 Squadron and 467 were the only RAAF squadrons with Bomber Command.

RAAF men were to be assigned to many different RAF Squadrons and eventually specific RAAF Squadrons within Bomber Command.